probe: pharmaceuticals in drinking water
Convulsions, emotional stability and sex hormones
An Associated Press survey shows that at least 41 million Americans have found this in their drinking water supply.
To be sure, the concentration of these drugs is very small, measured by the number of parts per billion or trillion, far below the level of the medical dose.
In addition, utilities insist that their water is safe.
But there are so many prescription drugs. and over-the-
Prescription drugs like Passion Pain and ibuprofen
In so much of our drinking water, scientists have long been more worried.
Long-term consequences for human health.
In the process of five people
In a monthly survey, the Associated Press found that drugs were found in drinking water in 24 major urban areas.
From Southern California to northern New Jersey, from Detroit to the city of Wisconsin, Kentucky.
The Associated Press found that the trend news census citizenship issue immigration debate hard working hours cocoa Gove Wen water supply rarely disclosed the results of drug screening, unless there is pressure.
For example, the head of a group representing a major supplier in California said that the public \"does not know how to interpret this information\" and may be overly alarmed.
How did the drug enter the water?
CBS News reporter Nancy Cordes reports that according to The Associated Press, this is the fault of every American who has taken pills.
Some are absorbed by the body when people take medicine, but leftovers are eventually washed off the toilet and into the water supply system.
Some water is cleaned again in the drinking water treatment plant and delivered to the consumer through the pipeline.
But most treatments do not remove all drug residues.
The treatment facility does not need to test the drug or filter it out, Cordes reports.
While the researchers are not yet aware of the exact risk of sustained exposure to a randomized combination of low-level drugs for decades, recent research --
Hardly noticed by the public.
Amazing effects on human cells and wildlife have been discovered.
\"We recognize that this is a growing concern and we take it very seriously,\" said Benjamin H . \"
The assistant administrator in charge of water in the United States complainedS.
Environmental Protection Bureau. Dr.
David Carpenter, director of the Institute of Health and Environment at the State University of New York at Albany, told cbs\'s Early Show that it is important to remember, \"You have to drink water.
And bottled water is no better than tap water.
\"Carpenter said that most of the tap water treatment methods cannot be extracted from the drug, but he said that the activated charcol filter --
Whether used at home or by the water treatment department-
Remove most compounds.
A small number of public water supply companies have already used the charcol filter, he said.
AP members of the national investigation team reviewed hundreds of scientific reports, analyzed the federal drinking water database, visited environmental research sites and treatment plants, and interviewed more than 230 officials, scholars and scientists
They also surveyed 50 of the country\'s largest cities and a dozen other major water supply agencies, as well as small community water supply agencies in all 50 states.
Here are some of the key test results obtained by The Associated Press: Philadelphia officials said 56 drugs or by-products, including pain, infection, high cholesterol, were found in treated drinking water, asthma, epilepsy, mental illness and heart problems. Sixty-
Three drugs or by-products were found in the city\'s watershed. Anti-
Epilepsy and anti-epilepsy
18 anxiety drugs were detected in partially treated drinking water.
Southern California have 5 million people
Researchers in the United StatesS.
The Geological Survey analyzed a drinking water treatment plant of the Pacific Valley Water Committee serving 850,000 people in northern New Jersey, and found a metabolic coronary heart disease drug and emotion
Stabilize carbamazepine in drinking water.
A sex hormone was detected in drinking water in San Francisco.
Drinking water in Washington DCC.
Six drugs were tested positive in the surrounding areas.
Three drugs, including antibiotics, were found in drinking water supplied to aristusen.
There is no doubt that this situation is worse than the positive test results of the major population centers recorded by The Associated Press.
The federal government does not need any tests and does not set safety limits for drugs in the water.
Of the 62 major water supply enterprises contacted, only 28 were tested for drinking water.
Out of 34 cities not yet available: Houston, Chicago, Miami, Baltimore, Phoenix, Boston, and the Department of Environmental Protection of New York City, which supplies water to 9 million people.
Some suppliers screen only one or two drugs, leaving the possibility of other drugs.
The Associated Press survey also showed that the basin, which is the source of most water supply in the United States, was also contaminated.
Tests were conducted in 35 of the 62 major providers surveyed by the AP, and drugs were detected in 28 basins.
However, officials from 6 of the 28 metropolitan areas said they did not continue testing their drinking water --Fairfax, Va. ;
Montgomery County, Maryland; Omaha, Neb. ; Oklahoma City;
And New York City.
The New York State Department of Health and the U. S. Geological Survey tested water sources in the north of the city.
They found heart drugs, infection fighters, estrogen, resistance
A pain relief agent, a mood stabilizer, and a calming agent.
City water officials declined requests for multiple interviews.
In a statement, they insisted that \"drinking water in New York City continues to comply with all federal and state regulations on the quality and distribution system of drinking water in the watershed \"--
Regulations that do not involve trace drugs.
In some cases, officials at municipal or regional water supply agencies told The Associated Press that the drug was not detected, but the Associated Press obtained the results of tests conducted by independent researchers, which indicated that this was not the case
For example, water department officials in New Orleans say their water hasn\'t been tested for drugs yet, but a researcher at Durham University and his students published a study, I found the painkillers, the sex hormone, the ketone, and the resistance.
The cholesterol drug by-product of chlorine betate acid in treated drinking water.
Of the 28 major metropolitan areas where drinking water supply is tested, only Albuquerque; Austin, Texas;
Virginia Beach, Va. ;
The test results were negative.
Drinking water has been tested in Dallas, but officials are waiting for the results.
ARLINGTON, Texas, admitted that traces of a drug were found in its drinking water, but cited
9/11 refusal to identify the safety of drugs.
The Associated Press also contacted 52 small water companies.
One for each state, two for Missouri and two for Texas.
Provide services to communities with a population of about 25,000.
All but one said that their drinking water had not been screened by drugs;
Officials from Empoli, Kansas
, Refused to answer the AP question, also quoted9/11 issues.
Experts say rural consumers taking water from their own wells are also unclear.
Stroud Water Research Center is located in Pa Avondale.
Caffeine has been measured in water samples of the watershed in northern New York City, a common pollutant that scientists often look for as a possible signal for the presence of other drugs.
Despite the discovery of more caffeine in the suburbs, researcher Anthony ovdencampe has been affected relatively high even in less populated areas.
He suspected that it might have escaped from a failed septic tank through other drugs.
\"The septic tank system is essentially a small treatment plant and is largely unmanaged and therefore prone to failure,\" Aufdenkampe said . \".
Even users of bottled water and household filtration systems do not necessarily avoid contact.
According to the major trading groups in the industry, some bottles simply repackage tap water and often do not process or test drugs.
The same is true for manufacturers of household filtration systems.
Pollution is not limited to the United States.
More than 100 different drugs have been detected in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and streams around the world.
The study detected drugs in waters of Asia, Australia, Canada and Europe
Even in the lakes of Switzerland and the North Sea.
This problem is not limited to surface water in the United States.
The drug also permeates deep underground reservoirs, a source of 40% of the country\'s water supply.
Federal scientists took water from reservoirs near pollution sources such as landfill sites and animal feed areas in 24 states, and they found hormones, antibiotics and other drugs to be extremely small.
Maybe because Americans are taking drugs all the time.
Unmetabolized or unused Flushing
The number is growing.
In the past five years, the population of the United StatesS.
Prescriptions were up 12% to a record 3.
7 billion, and the purchase of non-prescription drugs remained stable at 3.
According to IMS Health and Nielsen, 3 billion
\"People think that if they take the medicine, their body will absorb the medicine and disappear, but of course not,\" said EPA scientist Christian Daughton . \", One of the first to draw attention to the drug problem in the United States water.
A number of drugs, including the widely used cholesterol warrior, the calming agent and the-
Anti-modern drinking water and wastewater treatment process.
In addition, the EPA says there is no sewage treatment system specifically designed for the removal of drugs.
A technology, reverse osmosis, can remove almost all of the drug contaminants, but for large
Use on a large scale, leaving a few gallons of contaminated water for each drinkable water.
Another problem: there is evidence that the addition of chlorine in traditional drinking water treatment plants is a common process that makes some drugs more toxic.
Human waste is not the only source of pollution.
For example, implant cattle into their ears and provide slow release of trenbolone, a synthetic metabolic steroid used by some bodybuilders that causes cattle to pile up.
But not all trenbolone circulating in steer is metabolized.
A German study shows that 10% of steroids go through animals.
Samples of water steroids from the lower reaches of the NEAS farm are four times as high as those from the upper reaches.
Male thead fish living in downstream areas have low testosterone levels and small heads.
Other veterinary drugs have also played a role.
Pets can now treat arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, allergies, dementia, and even obesity
Sometimes the same drugs are used as humans. The inflation-
Adjusted veterinary drug value rose 8% to $5.
2 billion, according to the data analysis of the Institute of Animal Health, the past five years.
Ask if the water pollution in the pharmaceutical industry is a problem, and an official will tell you not.
\"Based on what we know now, I would say that we find that drugs in the environment are at little or no risk to human health,\" said Microbiology scientist Thomas White ,\", consultant for Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers in the United States.
But at a meeting last summer, Mary butzby
Director of environmental technology, pharmaceutical manufacturer MerckInc. -
He said: \"There is no doubt that drugs are detected in the environment, and what people are really worried about is that the concentration of these compounds is very small and may have an impact on human health or aquatic life.
\"Recent laboratory studies have found that a small number of drugs have affected human embryonic kidney cells, human blood cells and human breast cancer cells.
Cancer cells spread too fast;
The growth of kidney cells is too slow;
Blood cells show biological activity associated with inflammation.
In addition, studies have shown that drugs in waterways are destroying wildlife across the country and around the world.
It is worth noting that male fish are being feminized to produce egg yolk protein, and this process is usually limited to females.
Pharma is also affecting sentinel species at the bottom of the pyramid of life --
Studies have shown that, for example, wild earth worms and plankton in the laboratory.
Some scientists stress that the study is very limited and there are too many unknown things.
However, they say the health problems of wildlife on the record are disturbing.
\"If the fish is affected, it creates a problem for people. . .
Is there a potential problem for humans?
Wilson ie Wilson, an EPA research biologist, told The Associated Press.
\"This may be due to the physiological or other reasons of the fish, so they are very sensitive.
We don\'t get along far enough.
\"Due to limited research funding, Shane Snyder, R & D project manager at the water authority in southern Nevada, said more attention should be paid to studying the effects of water drugs.
\"I think it\'s a shame that so much money is put into monitoring to determine if these things exist and are rarely used for human health,\" Snyder said . \".
\"They need to accept that these things are everywhere --
Every chemical may exist.
It is time for the EPA to step up its actions and make a statement on the need to study human and environmental impacts.
\"To the extent that EPA is focusing on this issue, it seems to be focusing on detection.
Grumbles acknowledged that at the end of last year, the agency developed three new methods to \"detect and quantify drugs in wastewater \".
\"We realize that we have limited data on concentration,\" he said . \".
\"We will be able to learn more.
\"While complaining that EPA has analyzed 287 drugs so that they may be included in the draft list of regulatory candidates under the Safe Drinking Water Act, there is only one on the list, I . E.
Nitric acid can be used as a drug for the treatment of heart disease, but it is considered to be the main cause of the manufacture of explosives.
So much is unknown.
Many independent scientists suspect that the concentration of trace elements will eventually be harmful to humans.
Confidence in human safety is largely based on research into a large number of toxic laboratory animals.
At the same time, the scientific community is increasingly worried about certain drugs --
Or a combination of drugs.
It can be harmful to humans for decades, because unlike most specific foods, water is consumed in large quantities every day.
Our body may get rid of a relatively large body.
The time dose, but the dose that has been delivered continuously for half a century, is small and may subtly cause allergies or nerve damage.
Pregnant women, elderly people and seriously ill patients may be more sensitive.
Many people worry about chronic low
Horizontal exposure is concentrated in certain drug categories: chemotherapy that can be used as a powerful poison;
Hormones that hinder reproduction or development;
Drugs that can damage the brain or change behavior in depression and epilepsy;
Can allow human bacteria to become more dangerous forms of antibiotics;
Painkillers and blood
A stress-relieving drug.
For decades, federal environmental officials and non-profit environmental groups have focused on regulated pollutants.
Pesticides, lead, PCBs
Their concentration is high and clearly poses a risk to health.
However, some experts say that drugs can pose a unique danger because, unlike most contaminants, they are carefully designed to act on the human body.
\"These chemicals are designed to have very special effects at very low concentrations.
That\'s what pharmaceutical companies do.
So when they leave the environment, people who have an impact on them should not be shocked, \"said John samport, a zoologist at Brunel University in London who studied trace hormones, heart drugs and other drugs.
While drug testing is safe for humans, the time frame is usually a few months, not a lifetime.
Drugs can also produce side effects and interact with other drugs at normal medical doses. That\'s why -
In addition to injecting therapeutic doses of fluorine into the supply of drinking water --
Drugs are given to people who need them, not to everyone\'s drinking water. Adds Dr.
David Carpenter: \"We know that it\'s not good that we get access to other people\'s medications through drinking water.